Rollbar has two key concepts: Occurrences and Items. An occurrence is a single event instance: an exception or log message, along with its associated metadata. Rollbar tries to group occurrences into items that represent occurrences having the same source or cause.

Occurrences can either be:

  • exceptions, which have an exception class, exception message, and stack trace. or
  • messages, which have only a string message


Rollbar tries to group occurrences such that:

  • Occurrences with the same root cause are grouped together
  • Occurrences with different root causes are grouped separately
  • The grouping is resilient to deploys and code changes

We do this keeping our basic notifications—new item, reactivated item—in mind, trying to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. The goal is that when you see a notification about a "new item", it really is something new that you haven't seen before, and that if a new issue starts occurring, it will result in a new item being created in Rollbar.

When the above goals are in conflict, we generally err on the side of creating more issues. That is, we think it's better to get a few redundant notifications than to not realize an issue is happening because it was lumped together with something else.

Exception Grouping

For exceptions (including PHP and JavaScript errors), our basic algorithm is:

  1. Combine the filenames and method names from all of the stack frames
  2. Append the exception class name
  3. Take the SHA1 hash of the result

The resulting SHA1 hash is used as the occurrence "fingerprint". Occurrences with the same fingerprint are grouped together.

Things to note:

  • We use all of the stack frames, not just the frame from the top of the stack. While this sometimes means there will be multiple Items for the same root cause, it also prevents unrelated issues from being grouped together when they happen to call into the same library function.
  • We don't use the line numbers in the stack trace, as they often change due to unrelated code changes (i.e. someone added a line of code at the beginning of the file).
  • We don't use the exception message, as it often contains input that varies for each call.

We've added a number of tweaks to this basic algorithm. Here are some of the big ones:

  • dates and shas are stripped from paths in filenames
  • integers 2 characters or longer are stripped from method names
  • for JavaScript errors, we attempt to match the error message against a known database, to include data from the exception message when useful, and to group across browsers. Read more about JavaScript grouping in the blog post.

Message Grouping

For messages, we apply a number of heuristics on the message text itself. The basic algorithm is:

  1. Strip out things that look like data
  2. Take the SHA1 hash of what remains

Like exceptions, the resulting SHA1 hash is used as the occurrence "fingerprint", and occurrences with the same fingerprint are grouped together.

"Things that look like data" includes:

  • things that look like timestamps
  • numbers with decimal points
  • integers 2 digits or longer
  • hexadecimals 4 digits of longer

Customizing Grouping with Global Grouping Rules

If our default algorithm is separating things that you would like to see grouped together, you can set grouping rules to tell Rollbar to group them together. This can be found in Settings -> Grouping. Please see the Custom Grouping guide to learn more.

Customizing Grouping in Code

If our default algorithm isn't grouping things the way you want, you can calculate a fingerprint yourself and send it with the occurrence report. Occurrences with the same fingerprint will be grouped together. The fingerprint should be a string up to 40 characters long. If you pass a string longer than 40 characters, we'll use its SHA1 hash instead.

Rollbar.scope({fingerprint: "abcdefg"}).error("Something went wrong");
// This will be grouped with the above
Rollbar.scope({fingerprint: "abcdefg"}).error("Something else went wrong");
// errors
try {
} catch (e) {
  rollbar.handleErrorWithPayloadData(e, {fingerprint: "abcdefg"});

// messages
rollbar.reportMessageWithPayloadData("Something went wrong", {level: "error", fingerprint: "hijkl"});
// exceptions
try {
} catch (Exception $e) {
    Rollbar::report_exception($e, null, array('fingerprint' => 'abcdefg'));

// messages
Rollbar::report_message("Something went wrong", "error", null, array('fingerprint' => 'hijkl'));
# exceptions
  rollbar.report_exc_info(sys.exc_info(), payload_data={'fingerprint': 'abcdefg'})

# messages
rollbar.report_message("Something went wrong", payload_data={'fingerprint': 'hijkl'})
# exceptions
rescue => e
  Rollbar.scope({:fingerprint => "abcdefg"}).error(e)

# messages
Rollbar.scope({:fingerprint => "abcdefg"}).error("Something went wrong")
See the docs for the Rollbar library you are using for instructions on how to set
specific keys in the payload. To send the fingerprint, you'll just need to set the
"fingerprint" key in the payload to the value you want.

Customizing Grouping via the API

If you're using our API directly to send us data, you can set your own fingerprint by simply passing it in the JSON payload. For example:

  "access_token": "your-post_server_item-access-token",
  "data": {
    "environment": "production",
    "body": {
      "message": {
        "body": "Something went wrong"
    "fingerprint": "abcdefg"

The fingerprint should be a string up to 40 characters long. If you pass a longer string, we'll use its SHA1 hash.